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Raga Bihagda

   About Raga Bihagda

Raga Bihagda or Khokhar or Khokar

Raga Bihagda is a flavor of Raga Bihag, so it's chalan is similar to that of Raga Bihag. This Raga is a mix of Raga Bihag and Raga Khamaj.

Bihagda is a rare raga of the Bihag family. It is a raga of considerable antiquity, described in several mediaeval texts, and bears a close resemblance to raga Behag / Byag of the Carnatic (South Indian) tradition. Bihagda is known to have been performed, in recent years, only by vocalists of the Jaipur-Atrauli and Agra gharanas. It is, however, identified more closely with the Jaipur-Atrauli gharana, with its commonly recognized form corresponding to the raga as performed by Jaipur-Atrauli vocalists.

Multiplicity of nomenclature is unusual in rare ragas. Diversity of treatment under the same name is more frequently encountered. Bihagda seems to be an exception to this general pattern. It has come to be known by another name Khokar or Khokhar. Currently, and in the present context, both names refer to melodic entities performed by Jaipur-Atruali vocalists.

Being a rare raga, Bihagda’s survival depends largely on the appeal and success of a handful of bandishes (compositions).

Subbarao (Ibid.1996), describes two types of Bihagda.

Type 1: S G M P N D S/ N D P M G R S
Type 2: S G M P N D S/ S N P – G M P D n D P  -- M P G – RS 

Type 1 listed by Subbarao, was recorded by Mallikarjun Mansur, and has been performed by Alka Dev, a disciple of Madhusudan Kanetkar of Jaipur-Atrali gharana. This variant poses a sharper problem of differentiation of Bihagda from Bihag. This may be the reason why this version is even rarer than the common twin-Ni version (Type 2 above).

Type 2 listed above, which deploys komal (flat) Ni in the descent, is the most commonly encountered raga form. The pakad (identifying phrasing) of this variant is: GM/ PDnDP/ GMG or PMPG. Authorities have identified Ma and Sa as the vadi-samvadi (dominant and sub-dominant) swaras of the raga, though only hesitantly and on the grounds of differentiation between Bihag and Bihagda. In practice, however, Bihagda appears to revolve around the same Ga-Ni axis, as Bihag does, too.

Bhatkhande (Bhatkhande Sangeet Shastra, Vol. I, 5th Edition, 1991, Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras) mentions a third variety of Bihagda which permits Re and Dh in the ascent, the former being used only in the higher octave, and the latter being used only in the middle octave. This variant has not been heard in recent times.

With reference to Bihag, Bihagda has some noteworthy features. Bihagda always uses Re subliminally in the descent as in Bihag. But, Dh, which is always subliminal in Bihag, is used subliminally as well as explicitly in Bihagda. Tivra Ma, used in the contemporary Bihag, is not used formally in Bihagda, although a touch of the swara has been observed in some recordings. When encountered, it is used in a racy movement, and never in the signatory Bihag fashion (P-M'-G-M-G).

In Raga Bihagda, Shuddha Nishad is used in Aaroh and Avroh both, but Komal Nishad is only used in Avroh. This Raga is more tilted towards Raga Bihag, hence the Aaroh goes like this: S G m P N S'. However, as Dhaivat is allowed in Aaroh, S G m P D N S' may also be taken, but it's scarcely used. Like Raga Bihag, Rishabh and Dhaivat are respectively used as Kan Swar while rendering G (R) S and N (D) P.

Shuddha Madhyam is very important and a Nyas Swar. Teevra Madhyam is very rarely used to increase melody of the Raga.

Komal Nishad is used as follows: G m n D P ; G m G ; or G m P D n D P; G m G. Komal Nishad brings out the Khamaj Ang in this Raga. In this way, Bihagda is conceived by beautiful combination of Raga Bihag and Raga Khamaj.

Credits:

http://www.tanarang.com/

http://swaratala.blogspot.com/

https://www.surgyan.com/

   Raga structure of Bihagda

Thaat : Bilawal

Jaati : Audav - Sampurna

Vadi : G

Samvadi : N

Aaroh : S G M P D N S'


Avroh : S' N_ D P M G R S


Pakad : N_ D P G, D G M G, R S

Vishranti Sthan : G; m; N;

Chalan :
N S G/ G M/ G M G P/ G M P D n D P or G M n D P/ G M P N S’ or G M P S’/ N S’ N DP/ P D N P D M P G/ G M n D P/ P M P G/ G RS

Swaras : Rishabh Forbidden (Varjya) in Aaroh. Both Nishads. Rest all Shuddha Swaras.

Time : Second prahar of the Night (9 PM to 12 AM)

   External Videos of Bihagda

   Songs based on Raga Bihagda

Film songs in raga Bihagda 

1) Piya Banwari 

2) Rama charan tujhe lagale (Geetramayan - Marathi)


   Compositions in Raga Bihagda

Bandishes (compositons) 

These bandishen are composed by Acharya Vishwanath Rao Ringe 'Tanarang' and sung by Shri Prakash Vishwanath Ringe.

1) Bada Khyal: Kaise Dharu Dheer Re Tanarang

2) Chota Khyal: Baje Mori Payal Jhananana Ri

3) Chota Khyal: Kanha Dagar Chalat Jin Nain

4) Chota Khyal: Lagan Lagi Daras Ki Ab

5) Chota Khyal: Murali Me Meethi Taan Sunaye

6) Chota Khyal: Nain Uljhe Na Suljhe

7) Tarana : Dir Dir Tanan Tanan Tan Deemtan Derena

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